after three months at a high level, the number of new cases declared is decreasing

after three months at a high level, the number of new cases declared is decreasing
after three months at a high level, the number of new cases declared is decreasing

This Friday, May 24, 2024, Public Health France published the regional epidemiological update for week 20 (May 13 to 19, 2024). The number of cases of leptospirosis is decreasing. For dengue, we note a stabilization in the number of cases after an increase as well as a drop in the number of cases in the south and dispersion of cases (17 municipalities concerned). However, gastroenteritis is making a comeback. Emergency visits of all ages were on the rise. We publish below the press release from Public Health France. (Photo photo Sly/www.imazpress.com)

– Leptospirosis

After 3 months at a high level (with more than 60 monthly cases reported), the number of new cases reported was decreasing.

Since January 1, 2024, 228 cases of indigenous leptospirosis have been declared to the ARS, i.e. 8 more cases than the previous week. The number of cases occurring since the start of the year is higher than the maximum annual number of cases declared since the start of surveillance, i.e. in 2022 with 169 annual cases.

Men represented 93% of cases, with a median age of 56 years (min=14; max=86). The 15 female cases had a median age of 43 years (min=13; max=74). More than half of the cases resided in the south of the island (55% with 125 cases); for 21% in the West with 47 cases and in 18% in the East (with 42 cases). The North was the least impacted sector with only 6% of cases (with 13 cases). The rate of hospitalization for all services, as well as the rate of hospitalization in critical care units, remained stable (66% and 26% respectively). Three deaths have been reported since the start of the year.

Since the start of the year, 165 cases of suspected leptospirosis have been identified, including 87 hospitalizations, representing a hospitalization rate of 53%. In comparison to 2022, a year historically with the highest incidence before 2024, 117 visits including 70 hospitalizations were recorded for the same period (hospitalization rate of 60%). In 2024, activity for this reason has exceeded 5 weekly passages from S06/2004 (beginning of February). It then increased until S13 (end of March) where 16 passages were recorded. This peak of passages lasted two weeks (16 passages also in S14). Then the activity gradually decreased. It has fallen below 5 weekly visits for 2 weeks (4 visits including 2 hospitalizations in S19 and S20).

After 3 intense months where more than 60 monthly cases were reported, the number of leptospirosis cases reported under the OD was decreasing. Although climatic conditions are becoming less and less favorable for the survival of the bacteria in soils and humid environments, there is still a risk of contamination during risky activities. In Réunion, leptospirosis is endemic and epidemic.

Cases are identified all year round even though 82% of cases in 2022 and 60% of cases in 2023 occurred between January and May. It is important to remind the population of individual prevention and protection measures and to health professionals of the early diagnosis and management of cases as well as their declaration to the health authority (notifiable disease).


– Dengue –

Since the start of the year, 1,001 cases of dengue have been reported, which exceeds the number of total cases for 2023 and is higher than the number of cases for 2022 for the same period (913 cases in S19).

After the increase in cases reported in S18 (93 cases), a stabilization is observed in S19 (87 cases). The number of cases reported in S19 is higher than what was reported in 2022 in the same week (S47).

The share of cases reported in St Joseph is down again (31%), after 2 weeks of increase. Cases are mainly reported in the South (68%) – the number of cases is increasing in St Pierre (19 cases vs 10 cases) and St Philippe (5 cases vs 2 cases). It is then in the west that cases are most frequently reported (23% of cases) then the north (7%) and the east (2%).

The circulating serotype is always DENV2.

The health impact remains low to date with 139 visits to emergency departments (mainly CHU Sud and CHOR) for syndrome compatible with dengue fever since the start of the year, including 8 in S18 and 14 in S19. In S19, the vast majority of visits to the emergency room were reported at the South University Hospital (12/14). The hospital impact also remains low with 49 hospitalizations since the start of the year, including 12 in H15. Since the start of the year, 2 deaths directly linked to dengue have been reported.

Since the start of the year, 36 imported cases have been reported returning from travel – mainly returning from Mauritius and Rodrigues but also a few cases returning from the Antilles.


– Gastroenteritis –

In S20, visits to emergency rooms of all ages for reasons of gastroenteritis were on the rise. The number of visits to the emergency room was 68 in W20 versus 50 in W19 (Figure 10). The number of hospitalizations was stable with 8 hospitalizations in S20 compared to 7 hospitalizations in S19

In children under 5 years old, visits to the emergency room for reasons of gastroenteritis were stable in W20 (n=27) compared to the previous week (n=29). Hospitalizations after a visit to the emergency room were decreasing with only one hospitalization in W20 compared to 5 in W19.

In W20, the share of emergency activity among those under 5 years old for gastroenteritis remained stable compared to the previous week (6.1% in W20 vs 6.5% in W19).

In community medicine, the share of activity for acute diarrhea increased to 2.5% in S20. It was at the level of the average for the years 2013-2023.


– Covid –

For several weeks now, the viral circulation of COVID-19 has remained very low. The positivity rate (TP) has always been below 5% since the end of February. In H20, it was 1.8% compared to 3.8% in H19.

The screening rate was also low and was around 40 tests per 100,000 inhabitants since S11 (early March). It was 31.4 in S20 compared to 30.5 tests per 100,000 inhabitants in S19.

The analysis of the positivity rate by age groups shows a drop in the TP for all age groups.

In W20, three patients consulted the emergency room for reasons of COVID-19 as for the previous week. No hospitalizations for reasons of COVID-19 were recorded in W20 as in W19).


– Flu –

In S20, visits to the emergency room due to influenza-like illness increased moderately. The emergency department recorded 17 visits for reasons of flu syndrome in S20 compared to 12 the previous week. The number of hospitalizations for influenza-like illness was stable with 2 hospitalizations reported in W20 and in W19. The share of emergency activity for influenza reasons represented less than 1% of total activity.

Virological surveillance identified in S20 an exclusive circulation of influenza type A(H1N1)pdm09. The positivity rate increased with 8% of tests positive for influenza viruses in S20 compared to 5% in S19.

In community medicine, the share of activity for Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) was stable with 2.8% of total activity in S20 versus 2.7% for S19. The share of activity for IRA was in H20 at the level of the 2013-2023 average.


– Bronchiolitis –

Visits to the emergency room for bronchiolitis in children under 2 years old were decreasing in S20 compared to the
previous week. In W20, 18 children aged under 2 years consulted the emergency room for bronchiolitis versus 24 in W19.

New hospitalizations were stable (n=8) compared to the previous week (n=9).

The share of visits to the emergency room for bronchiolitis among all visits of children under two years old was 7.3% compared to 8.9% the previous week.

Concerning virological surveillance, the positivity rate for RSV among those under two years of age was decreasing, and stood at 14% in S20 vs. 31% in S19 with circulation of only type A RSV.


– Mortality from any cause –

In S18, the number of deaths observed for all ages and all causes was 90 people. Compared to the previous week, the number of deaths observed was down (n=117 in S17). The number of deaths observed in W18 was lower than the expected number of deaths (n=111).

Among those over 65, in S19, 67 deaths were observed vs. 84 expected deaths. This figure was down compared to what was observed in S18 (86 deaths observed).

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